James Chalmers was a British-born political activist and military leader who lived in the Southern colony of Maryland. He was a loyalist who wrote Plain Truth (1776), a response to the popular pro-independence pamphlet Common Sense (1776) by Enlightenment philosopher and political activist Thomas Paine.
Chalmers recognized that the North and South as different societies with competing interests under the British monarchy were largely unable in that undemocratic system to impose their values and preferred policies upon the other. But if the empire were divided and the colonies were joined together under a more democratic system, Chalmers predicted conflict and war. He foresaw, for example, the fight over the location of the Federal capital and the horrible slaughter of the 1860s.
He wrote, “Released from foreign war; we would probably be plunged into all the misery of anarchy and intestine war. Can we suppose the people of the south, would submit to have the seat of Empire at Philadelphia, or in New England?”
Notice that this quote from Chalmers not only predicts the future, it establishes the “people of the south” as distinct from New Englanders and other Northerners prior to the existence of the Union. Contrary to the theory advanced by Abraham Lincoln and other anti-Southern leaders, there was no single and united American nation of people who fought against the British and established a new government for themselves.